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Central European Management Journal

Show issue
Year 2017 
Volume 25 
Issue 2

Leadership Competencies Among Managers

Anna Baczyńska
Kozminski University
https:// orcid.org/0000-0001-5189-4487

Pawel Korzynski
Kozminski University

2017 25 (2) Central European Management Journal

DOI 10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.193

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey conducted among managers (N=38) in the framework of the project “Development of the Bounded Leadership Theory”. The research juxtaposes two types of variables: (1) leadership competencies outlined in Kozminski’s theory (i.e. anticipatory, visionary, value-creating, mobilizing, self-reflection) with (2) three psychological predispositions of leaders, such as intelligence, personality and ability to influence others. The tested predispositions represented three groups: non-variable traits, or permanent characteristics (intelligence), partially variable characteristics (personality) and variable characteristics (influence tactics).

Methodology: A total of 38 middle and senior managers, students of the MBA programme at Kozminski University, took part in the survey. Participants flled out a preliminary version of the Leadership Competence Questionnaire, as well as tests pertaining to intelligence, personality and influence tactics. The hypotheses were tested using Spearman’s rho correlation. The research has brought interesting results relating to the correlation between the fve tested competencies and leadership predispositions.

Findings: Permanent and partly stable characteristics do not correlate with leadership competencies, i.e. a high score in leadership competencies is not necessarily synonymous with high intelligence levels or positive personality traits. Correlations have been observed between mobilization skills and influence tactics in the surveyed sample, i.e. legitimacy and personal appeals that leaders have recourse to and, in the case of value-creating competencies, an interesting correlation with legitimacy.

Originality: The study constitutes an important contribution to the extant literature, as – first and foremost – it represents a new approach to the understanding of leadership competencies. Secondly, it reveals correlations between complex skills, i.e. competencies, and permanent, relatively permanent and variable characteristics of contemporary leaders. Thirdly, it is the starting point for further research on leadership competencies.

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  54. 5 Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. and Gerhardt, M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4): 765–780, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.765 [Google Scholar]
  55. Judge, T.A., Colbert, A.E. and Ilies, R. (2004). Intelligence and Leadership: A Quantitative Review and Test of Theoretical Propositions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3): 542–552, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.542 [Google Scholar]
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  58. Korzynski, P. (2014). Overcoming Leadership Limitations: A Theoretical Study of Leadership Behaviors and Methods. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 22(4): 26–38, https://doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.116 [Google Scholar]
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  60. Kozmiński, A.K. (2013). Ograniczone przywództwo. Studium empiryczne. Warszawa: Poltext. [Google Scholar]
  61. Kozmiński, A.K. (2015). Bounded Leadership: Empirical Study of the Polish Elite. Polish Sociological Review, 4(192): 425–453. [Google Scholar]
  62. Llopis, G. (2014). 7 Ways Leaders Maintain Their Composure in Diffcult Times, http://www.forbes.com/sites/glennllopis/2014/01/20/7-ways-leaders-maintain-their-composure-in-diffcult-times/#27618844708d [Google Scholar]
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  71. Smith, W.K., Lewis, M.W. and Tushman, M.L. (2016). Both/And Leadership. Harvard Business Review, May. [Google Scholar]
  72. Spender, J.C. (2008). Can Simon’s Notion of Bounded Rationality’ Give Us New Ideas About Leadership? Leadership, 4(1): 95–109, https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715007085771 [Google Scholar]
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  74. Westley, F. and Mintzberg, H. (1989). Visionary leadership and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 10(S1): 17–32, https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100704 [Google Scholar]
  75. Yukl, G. and Chavez, C. (2002). Influence tactics and leader effectiveness. In: L. Neider and C.A. Schriesheim (eds.), Leadership. Greenwich, Connecticut: New Information Age Publishing. [Google Scholar]
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  78. Zaccaro, S.J., Kemp, C. and Bader, P. (2004). Leader Traits and Attributes. In: J. Antonakis, A.T. Cianciolo and R.J. Sternberg (eds.), The Nature of Leadership. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications [Google Scholar]
  79. Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (11th Edition). Palgrave. [Google Scholar]
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  82. Cann, O. (2014). Crisis in Leadership Underscores Global Challenges, https://www.weforum.org/press/2014/11/crisis-in-leadership-underscores-global-challenges/ [Google Scholar]
  83. Cheema, S., Akram, A. and Javed, F. (2015). Employee Engagement and Visionary Leadership: Impact on Customer and Employee Satisfaction. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 7(2): 139. [Google Scholar]
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  86. Dvir, T., Kass, N. and Shamir, B. (2004). The emotional bond: Vision and organizational commitment among high-tech employees. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2): 126–143, https://doi.org/10.1108/09534810410530575 [Google Scholar]
  87. Fiedler, F.E. (2002). The curious role of cognitive resources in leadership. In: R.E. Riggio, S.E. Murphy and F.J. Pirozzolo (eds.), Multiple intelligences and leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [Google Scholar]
  88. George, B.S.P. (2007). True north: discover your authentic leadership. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley & Sons. [Google Scholar]
  89. Giles, W.H. (2010). Preventing non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Health Promotion, 17(2 suppl): 3–5, https://doi.org/10.1177/1757975910363946 [Google Scholar]
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  94. Judge, T.A., Colbert, A.E. and Ilies, R. (2004). Intelligence and Leadership: A Quantitative Review and Test of Theoretical Propositions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3): 542–552, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.542 [Google Scholar]
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  97. Korzynski, P. (2014). Overcoming Leadership Limitations: A Theoretical Study of Leadership Behaviors and Methods. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 22(4): 26–38, https://doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.116 [Google Scholar]
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  99. Kozmiński, A.K. (2013). Ograniczone przywództwo. Studium empiryczne. Warszawa: Poltext. [Google Scholar]
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  103. Ramos, J.M. (2013). Forging the synergy between anticipation and innovation: the futures action model. Journal of Futures Studies, 18(1): 85–106. [Google Scholar]
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  105. Savage, A. and Sales, M. (2008). The anticipatory leader: futurist, strategist and integrator. Strategy & Leadership, 36(6): 28–35, https://doi.org/10.1108/10878570810918331 [Google Scholar]
  106. Schein, E.H. (1997). Przywództwo a kultura organizacji. In: F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith and R. Beckhard (eds.), Lider przyszłości. Warszawa: Business Press. [Google Scholar]
  107. Silzer, R. and Church, A.H. (2009). The pearls and perils of identifying potential. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 2: 377–412, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2009.01163.x [Google Scholar]
  108. Simon, H.A. (1957). Models of Man: Social and Rational. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. [Google Scholar]
  109. Sparrowe, R. (2005). Authentic leadership and narrative self. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3): 419–439, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  110. Smith, W.K., Lewis, M.W. and Tushman, M.L. (2016). Both/And Leadership. Harvard Business Review, May. [Google Scholar]
  111. Spender, J.C. (2008). Can Simon’s Notion of Bounded Rationality’ Give Us New Ideas About Leadership? Leadership, 4(1): 95–109, https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715007085771 [Google Scholar]
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  113. Westley, F. and Mintzberg, H. (1989). Visionary leadership and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 10(S1): 17–32, https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100704 [Google Scholar]
  114. Yukl, G. and Chavez, C. (2002). Influence tactics and leader effectiveness. In: L. Neider and C.A. Schriesheim (eds.), Leadership. Greenwich, Connecticut: New Information Age Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  115. Yukl, G. and Falbe, C.M. (1992). Consequences for managers of using single influence tactics and combination of tactics. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3): 638–652, https://doi.org/10.2307/256490 [Google Scholar]
  116. Yukl, G., Kim, H. and Falbe, C.M. (1996). Antecedents of Influence Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3): 309–317, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.3.309 [Google Scholar]
  117. Zaccaro, S.J., Kemp, C. and Bader, P. (2004). Leader Traits and Attributes. In: J. Antonakis, A.T. Cianciolo and R.J. Sternberg (eds.), The Nature of Leadership. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications [Google Scholar]
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  189. Spender, J.C. (2008). Can Simon’s Notion of Bounded Rationality’ Give Us New Ideas About Leadership? Leadership, 4(1): 95–109, https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715007085771 [Google Scholar]
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  196. Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (11th Edition). Palgrave. [Google Scholar]
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  199. Cann, O. (2014). Crisis in Leadership Underscores Global Challenges, https://www.weforum.org/press/2014/11/crisis-in-leadership-underscores-global-challenges/ [Google Scholar]
  200. Cheema, S., Akram, A. and Javed, F. (2015). Employee Engagement and Visionary Leadership: Impact on Customer and Employee Satisfaction. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 7(2): 139. [Google Scholar]
  201. Church, A.H, Waclawski, J. and Scott, J.C. (2012). Talent management in action: Game of thrones. Workshop conducted at the 27th annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. San Diego. [Google Scholar]
  202. Clark, P.G. (2013). Toward a transtheoretical model of interprofessional education: Stages, processes and forces supporting institutional change. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27(1): 43–49, https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2012.730074 [Google Scholar]
  203. Dvir, T., Kass, N. and Shamir, B. (2004). The emotional bond: Vision and organizational commitment among high-tech employees. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2): 126–143, https://doi.org/10.1108/09534810410530575 [Google Scholar]
  204. Fiedler, F.E. (2002). The curious role of cognitive resources in leadership. In: R.E. Riggio, S.E. Murphy and F.J. Pirozzolo (eds.), Multiple intelligences and leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [Google Scholar]
  205. George, B.S.P. (2007). True north: discover your authentic leadership. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley & Sons. [Google Scholar]
  206. Giles, W.H. (2010). Preventing non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Health Promotion, 17(2 suppl): 3–5, https://doi.org/10.1177/1757975910363946 [Google Scholar]
  207. Groves, K.S. (2006). Leader emotional expressivity, visionary leadership, and organizational change. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(7): 566–583, https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730610692425 [Google Scholar]
  208. Hersey, P., Blanchard, K, and Johnson, D. (2008). Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education. [Google Scholar]
  209. House, R.J. (1971). A path-goal theory of leader effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16(3): 321–339, https://doi.org/10.2307/2391905 [Google Scholar]
  210. 5 Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. and Gerhardt, M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4): 765–780, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.765 [Google Scholar]
  211. Judge, T.A., Colbert, A.E. and Ilies, R. (2004). Intelligence and Leadership: A Quantitative Review and Test of Theoretical Propositions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3): 542–552, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.3.542 [Google Scholar]
  212. Judge, T.A., Joyce, E.B., Ilies, R. and Gerhardt M.W. (2002). Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4): 765–780, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.765 [Google Scholar]
  213. Kandampully, J. and Duddy, R. (1999). Competitive advantage through anticipation, innovation and relationships. Management Decision, 37(1): 51–56, https://doi.org/10.1108/00251749910252021 [Google Scholar]
  214. Korzynski, P. (2014). Overcoming Leadership Limitations: A Theoretical Study of Leadership Behaviors and Methods. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 22(4): 26–38, https://doi.org/10.7206/mba.ce.2084-3356.116 [Google Scholar]
  215. Kozmiński, A.K. (2002). Zarządzanie. In: A.K. Kozmiński and W. Piotrowski (eds.), Zarządzanie. Teoria i praktyka. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. [Google Scholar]
  216. Kozmiński, A.K. (2013). Ograniczone przywództwo. Studium empiryczne. Warszawa: Poltext. [Google Scholar]
  217. Kozmiński, A.K. (2015). Bounded Leadership: Empirical Study of the Polish Elite. Polish Sociological Review, 4(192): 425–453. [Google Scholar]
  218. Llopis, G. (2014). 7 Ways Leaders Maintain Their Composure in Diffcult Times, http://www.forbes.com/sites/glennllopis/2014/01/20/7-ways-leaders-maintain-their-composure-in-diffcult-times/#27618844708d [Google Scholar]
  219. Nadler, D.A. and Tushman, M.L. (1990). Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change. California Management Review, 32(2): 77–97, https://doi.org/10.2307/41166606 [Google Scholar]
  220. Ramos, J.M. (2013). Forging the synergy between anticipation and innovation: the futures action model. Journal of Futures Studies, 18(1): 85–106. [Google Scholar]
  221. Rucht, D. (2012). Leadership in social and political movements: a comparative exploration. Comparative Political Leadership. Springer. [Google Scholar]
  222. Savage, A. and Sales, M. (2008). The anticipatory leader: futurist, strategist and integrator. Strategy & Leadership, 36(6): 28–35, https://doi.org/10.1108/10878570810918331 [Google Scholar]
  223. Schein, E.H. (1997). Przywództwo a kultura organizacji. In: F. Hesselbein, M. Goldsmith and R. Beckhard (eds.), Lider przyszłości. Warszawa: Business Press. [Google Scholar]
  224. Silzer, R. and Church, A.H. (2009). The pearls and perils of identifying potential. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 2: 377–412, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2009.01163.x [Google Scholar]
  225. Simon, H.A. (1957). Models of Man: Social and Rational. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. [Google Scholar]
  226. Sparrowe, R. (2005). Authentic leadership and narrative self. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3): 419–439, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  227. Smith, W.K., Lewis, M.W. and Tushman, M.L. (2016). Both/And Leadership. Harvard Business Review, May. [Google Scholar]
  228. Spender, J.C. (2008). Can Simon’s Notion of Bounded Rationality’ Give Us New Ideas About Leadership? Leadership, 4(1): 95–109, https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715007085771 [Google Scholar]
  229. Sternberg, R.J. (2007). A Systems Model of Leadership. American Psychologist, 62(1): 34–42, https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.1.34 [Google Scholar]
  230. Westley, F. and Mintzberg, H. (1989). Visionary leadership and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 10(S1): 17–32, https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100704 [Google Scholar]
  231. Yukl, G. and Chavez, C. (2002). Influence tactics and leader effectiveness. In: L. Neider and C.A. Schriesheim (eds.), Leadership. Greenwich, Connecticut: New Information Age Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  232. Yukl, G. and Falbe, C.M. (1992). Consequences for managers of using single influence tactics and combination of tactics. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3): 638–652, https://doi.org/10.2307/256490 [Google Scholar]
  233. Yukl, G., Kim, H. and Falbe, C.M. (1996). Antecedents of Influence Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3): 309–317, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.3.309 [Google Scholar]
  234. Zaccaro, S.J., Kemp, C. and Bader, P. (2004). Leader Traits and Attributes. In: J. Antonakis, A.T. Cianciolo and R.J. Sternberg (eds.), The Nature of Leadership. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications [Google Scholar]

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Baczyńska, A. , & Korzynski, P.. (2017). Leadership Competencies Among Managers. Central European Management Journal, 25(2), 6-22. https://doi.org/10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.193 (Original work published 2017)

MLA style

Baczyńska, A. , and P. Korzynski. “Leadership Competencies Among Managers”. 2017. Central European Management Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, 2017, pp. 6-22.

Chicago style

Baczyńska, Anna , and Pawel Korzynski. “Leadership Competencies Among Managers”. Central European Management Journal, Central European Management Journal, 25, no. 2 (2017): 6-22. doi:10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.193.