Journal of Management and Business Administration. Central Europe

International Startups from Poland: Born Global or Born Regional?

Maciejewski, Marek Wach, Krzysztof

Cracow University of Economics

852.04 KB



Purpose: The article discusses the pace of internationalization by empirically verifying the speed of internationalization of Polish international firms and identifying which pattern is more frequently used by international startups from Poland: born global or born regional.

Methodology: The article employs a quantitative approach. It builds on a sample of 355 international businesses from Poland (CATI survey).

Findings: By using t test, U test, and ANOVA, the analysis showed a correlation between the compa-ny’s international strategy as a planning instrument and the speed and scope of internationalization. Research limitations/implications: Based on prior studies from other parts of the globe, we assume that among Polish companies the number of born regionals – i.e. businesses that are international from their inception – is growing, while their activity is mainly restricted to the European Union. Among Polish international firms, there are many born global. In the studied sample (selected randomly), the share of born globals was 61.5%, and global startups 43%, which is a very high rate. The results enable to adopt a hypothesis that the number of Polish-born regionals is relatively high in comparison with the traditional path and born globals.

Originality/value: The article describes one of the first studies to (i) capture the phenomenon of born regionals in Poland and (ii) enrich empirical studies on emerging markets such as Poland.


Journal Journal of Management and Business Administration. Central Europe 
Volume 27 
Issue 1 
Issue date 2019 
Type Article 
Language en
Pagination 60-83
DOI 10.7206/jmba.ce.2450-7814.247
ORCID Maciejewski, M.: 0000-0003-1343-3764 Wach, K.: 0000-0001-7542-2863
ISSN 2450-7814
eISSN 2450-8829